What is Sterling Silver?

Introduction

We are often asked in the shop if something marked as ‘sterling silver’  is actually real silver.  

 

Not only does there seem to be some confusion about sterling silver but we also get asked what is the difference between “sterling silver” and “925 sterling silver”. 

 

What exactly does the ‘925’ mean? 

 

The answer is actually quite straightforward, so we thought we’d write a blog to clear up any confusion.  

Solid Silver hammered round ladies bangle
Solid Silver Hammered Bangle

What is Silver?

Silver is a very soft metal with a brilliant lustre.   

 

Pure silver, also referred to as fine silver, is 99.9% pure silver. 

 

Because pure silver is very soft, it needs to be combined (alloyed) with other, harder metals to make it workable and malleable.

Silver Alloys

Platinum, palladium and gold can be used as silver alloys. But this has the disadvantage of making the piece more costly.   

 

Therefore, copper is often the metal of choice used in silver alloys – this is most often what is used to create Sterling Silver.

 

A rather marvellous and recent creation of Argentium Silver, where pure silver has been alloyed with a metal called Germanium, has resulted in what has been classed as a purer silver with many advantages over Sterling Silver.   

Sterling Silver

Sterling Silver is created when pure silver is alloyed with other metals in a specific quantity.

 

This quantity consists of 92.5% pure silver and 7.5% other metals (alloys). 

 

It is these specific quantities that define the metal as ‘Sterling Silver‘ – hence the name 925 Sterling Silver.

925 Sterling Silver

925 Sterling silver is simply 92.5% pure silver with 7.5% alloys.

 

Therefore, 925 sterling silver is sterling silver and vice versa – both mean the same thing and there is no difference between the two. 

The Grading of Precious Metals

Most precious metals used in jewellery making today, including gold, silver, platinum and palladium, are alloys.  This makes the material more workable, stronger and better-wearing. 

 

Therefore a grading system was devised so as to standardise these alloys, so that everyone could know what a piece is made of. 

 

The system indicates the percentage amount of pure noble metal vs the alloy in the material.  The decimal point is removed from the figure. 

 

So, for instance, the 925 in Sterling Silver means the material contains 92.5% pure silver and the rest (7.5%) are alloys. 

 

 

Hallmarks

To guarantee the standard of jewellery and the metal it is made of,  jewellery is stamped with a Hallmark.

 

This means that it is tested and the quality of the item is guaranteed to be what it states it is.  It’s a label, if you like, stating clearly that it is of a certain quality.

 

We cover much more about hallmarks in our blog here, but as long as the piece of jewellery being sold as sterling silver weighs over 7.78 grammes, it must, by law,  have a hallmark to prove it is silver. 

 

The hallmark will consist of a minimum of three ‘marks‘ described below (there may be other marks). These will be: 

  1. The Maker’s/Sponsor’s Mark, 
  2. The Assay Office Mark, and
  3. The Fineness Mark.  

A Maker’s Mark will look a bit like this:

Sponsers mark on a hallmark

Sponsor’s Mark

 

The Assay Office in which it was stamped, could be one of four in the UK, which look like this:

Assay Office Marks in the UK

Marks of the Four UK Assay Office’s

There will also be the mark which shows the item is 925 Sterling Silver, which will be stamped with the number 925. 

 

There are other silver hallmarks, but sterling silver is 925 and it will appear like this:  

 

925 stamp used to hallmark sterling silver jewellery

Or:

Common Control Mark of 925 silver used in Hallmarking

 

 

Is Sterling Silver Real Silver?

Yes, sterling silver is real silver and will make up all of the ‘silver jewellery pieces you see in a jewellers window. 

 

However, it is not pure silver and, as we’ve explained,  almost no jewellery is made from pure silver. 

Why Is It Called "Sterling" Silver?

We can’t be sure why exactly why the word ‘sterling’ is used. There are two conflicting stories around the possible origins.

 

One is that it was from the Old English ‘Steorling’ meaning “little star” as stars often appeared on the early coins which were made of silver.

 

The other explanation was that it was named after an area of East Germany called “The Osterlings” which translated is, “Easterlings”. 

 

The people there engaged in a lot of commerce with England and always dealt in their local currency which happened to be coins made of 92.5% silver. This tender became known as the coins of the ‘Easterlings’ which was shortened over time to just ‘sterlings’. 

 

Is Adding An Alloy to Pure Silver An Advantage?

Well, the answer to this is yes and no. 

 

Adding an alloy to pure silver helps with the strength and malleability of the metal.  Therefore the creation of beautiful pieces of jewellery, tableware and other items can be crafted from sterling silver, which would not be possible to do from pure silver.  

 

Mixing pure silver with other metals means stunning items can be created.

 

But, depending on what alloy is used, this can lead to some problems. 

 

Copper is often the alloy of choice in Sterling Silver and the presence of copper leads tarnishing and something called Firestain which is a real problem for those making items in silver and needs removing when it occurs. 

 

These problems can, and are, overcome though but it just adds to the time and therefore costs in creating beautiful jewellery. 

Does Real Silver Tarnish?

In a word, yes! 

 

Tarnish occurs on sterling silver on exposure to air or perspiration. It is caused by a chemical reaction of hydrogen sulfide on the surface of the silver. 

 

This is the reason why silver needs to be cleaned with a jewellery cloth or jewellery dip to return it to its former glory (which it does, beautifully).   

Tarnishing of silver is perfectly normal and does not mean the item is not real silver.

A 'Before and After Cleaning' picture of a silver pendant

 

How to Tell If Something is Made From Sterling Silver?

1. The Hallmark

 

As detailed above, you should look for the hallmark and fineness mark of 925.  It should be stamped on the inside of the ring, for instance, or by the catch on a bracelet or necklace.

 

If the item weighs less than 7.78 g it does not need a full hallmark but will often still be stamped 925.

 

But if the piece is not hallmarked what should you look for? 

 

2. Test With A Magnet

 

Silver is not magnetic, so it won’t be attracted to a magnet. Do bear in mind though, that often the spring inside of the catch is made from other metals so this will be attracted to the magnet. 

 

A silver-plated item, which has a covering of silver over base-metal, will be attracted to a strong magnet. 

 

3. Test with Nitric Acid (but not at home!)

 

If a drop of Nitric Acid is placed on something which isn’t silver it will fizz and turn a different colour – from brown to green.

 

This is how a jeweller will test if an item is made from solid silver (from a testing kit) and we don’t advise you to try this at home. The jeweller will file away a little of the surface of the item, in case the piece is silver plated and only silver on the surface. 

 

Not Reliable or Recommended – Test With A White Cloth 

 

Many people recommend you test with a white cloth as they say silver will leave a black mark on the cloth (from surface oxidation).  

 

We think a lot of metals will leave a mark on the cloth, including silver plate, so we don’t recommend this method.

The Best Way to Care For Sterling Silver

Jewellery Cleaning Wipes
Jewellery Cleaning Wipes
Ultra Soft Silver Jewellery Cleaning Cloth
Ultra Soft Silver Jewellery Cleaning Cloth

We recommend not letting the tarnish build-up on your silver jewellery.  Clean with a silver Cleaning Cloth regularly and store in a sealed plastic back or soft cloth.  

 

We use both of the Cleaning Cloths above every day in our shop.

 

 

Final Thoughts

We hope this has cleared up any confusion that you may have had around 925 Sterling Silver.   

 

You should now be able to check what you need to look for to guarantee whether an item is really made of Sterling Silver and what it means when it is.

Resources

Chemicool:  Silver
 

https://www.indigo-silver.co.uk/pages/what-is-sterling-silver

https://www.braybrook.co.uk/jewellery-and-silver-wisdom/history-of-silver

 

 

 

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